Further readings

Ward E, Jemal A, Cokkinides V, Singh GK, Cardinez C, Ghafoor A, Thun M. Cancer disparities by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (2004)CA Cancer J Clin;54(2):78-93.

This report focuses on disparities for selected cancer sites (lung and bronchus, colon and rectum, female breast, prostate, uterine cervix, stomach, and liver) that show large variations by race and ethnicity.

Perkins JM, Khan KT, Subramanian SV, Patterns and Distribution of HIV among Adult Men and Women in India. (2009) PLoS ONE 4(5): e5648. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005648.

The paper discuss the individual and state-level socioeconomic patterning of individual HIV status among adult men and women in India and report that while risk of HIV is inversely correlated with education status, the income status has weak association with HIV prevalene.

Weiss MG, Auer C, Somma DB, Abouihia A, Kemp J, Jawahar MS, Karim F, Arias NL, Gender and tuberculosis: cross-site analysis and implications of a multi-country study in Bangladesh, India, Malawi, and Colombia, 2006, WHO reference number:TDR/SDR/SEB/RP/06.1.

This report addressed practical questions about the role of gender in TB and TB control in four low- to middle-income countries of Asia (Bangladesh and India), Africa (Malawi), and South America (Colombia). The study findings suggests that specific strategies for improving TB control through gender-sensitive and locally appropriate community action, clinic operations, programme monitoring, and action oriented research for TB control.

Neyrolles O, Quintana-Murci L, Sexual Inequality in Tuberculosis, 2009, Sexual Inequality in Tuberculosis. PLoS Med 6(12): e1000199. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000199

This paper discusses the biological sex-related factors that may render men more susceptible to pulmonary TB than women and recommend a multi-disciplinary team of researchers including not only microbiologists, immunologists, and human geneticists, but also epidemiologists and sociologists, should be established to unravel the many faces of sexual inequality in TB, and to decipher the delicate mechanisms involved in natural and sex-associated resistance to TB.